Tuesday, August 7, 2007

History of Darwiish Ismaaciil Mire, Part 2

In 1905 Sayid Maxamed and the Darwiish forces signed a peace treaty that ceded the Nugaal to the Darwiish forces in return for a cessation of violence and a promise to stop interfering in the affairs of the British-protected tribes and their lands. Lee Cassaneli wrote that historians are unanimous in their view that the Sayid did not enter into this arrangement with honest intentions, but rather, that it was a ploy to gain time in order to regroup and re-establish his power. He cites the Sayid's clandestine relations with the Biyamaal to whom he provided a lot of weapons. This theory gains further credence when you take into account the Darwiish expansionist attitude towards the Kingdom of Cali Yuusuf and their aggressive stance towards him.

In February, 1905 the English received intelligence supplied by a Signor Olivo who relayed the distress of Suldaan Cali Yuusuf at reports that the Daraawiish had captured Garacad, with the Sayid himself settling there. The Darwiishes viewed Garacad as a useful coastal settlement with a natural harbour. It would facilitate Darwiish gun-running activities and trade. Signor Olivo wrote that Cavaliere Pestalozza was en route to Hobyo to consult with Suldaan Cali Yuusuf. There were further telegraphic reports relating the flight of Reer Mahad from Garacad as their stock was looted by the advancing Darwiishes.

Thus, after many years of trying, were the Daraawiish finally able to establish a strong and deep presence in Mudug. After the successes of 1905, they built forts at Garacad and Jarriiban. It was one of the main strategic objectives of the Darwiish movement to establish themselves along the Mudug coast for trade purposes; and to control the interior of Mudug that was rich in stock and traversed by many trade caravans. But the inhabitants Mudug proved very recalcitrant, partly out of loyalty to Suldaan Cali Yuusuf and partly out of fear of him.
As far back as 1902, Ismaaciil Mire was the spearhead of the Darwiish assault against many strongholds of Suldaan Cali Yuusuf in Mudug and to punish any tribes who were obstructing the Jihaad. In Sept 1902, The Darwiish forces attacked Suldaan Cali Yuusuf's fort at Gaalkacayo and occupied it. A report received by the English high command reads as follows: "in consequence of this success the prestige of the Mullah had considerably increased among southern and western tribes of the Mudug district". Col. Swayne believed that this was a serious reverse for Cali Yuusuf and proposed that a force of 600 Sudanese, with four guns, should be landed at Hobyo to buttress the Majeerteen King. The Darwiish occupation of interior Mudug was not a lasting one.

They were routed out of Mudug by General Manning's forces that landed at Hobyo at the start of the 3rd English Expedition. But by July, 1904 Cali Yuusuf's position at Gaalkacayo became untenable once more and Swayne sent a telegram that the Majeerteen King had already evacuated Gaalkacayo reasoning that he feared for Hobyo and would concentrate his defenses there. The King reiterated his need for more rifles. Swayne was of the opinion that he had enough already.

In 1905, the Darwiishes were increasingly assertive and were in the mood to punish any dissent against the liberation struggle. Majeerteen were attacked in Mudug when it was felt that they were dilatory in their support for the Daraawiish. In the north a breakaway sept of the Cali Geri was coming under pressure in Buuhoodle. Ismaaciil Mire was in the thick of the action and a detachment of Darwiishes under his command set off from the Xarun to Abqow, South of Eyl where the largest concentration of Darwiish ponies were being tended by the Sayid's brother Yuusuf Sheekh Cabdille.

Upon reaching Abqow, Ismaaciil Mire composed a poem addressed to Yuusuf Sheekh Cabdille spelling out his intentions for spreading Darwiish power in Mudug and to punish Suldaan Cali Yuusuf for his treachery in supporting the English by allowing General Manning to land at Hobyo during the 3rd English Expedition against the Darwiishes.

Taleex iyo Abqow, Yuusufow, waa tub kala dheere
Todobaan ka soo dhaxay halkay tiil dariiqaduye
Wixii aad tartiib igu ogayd tiicis baan ahaye
Tan inaan fadhiistaana waa tacaddi diimeede
Wax Jahaadku taawinahayaa tan iyo Ceelhuure
Tiirkii Hobyood waa la gubi taan niyaysnahaye
Abtow Togayar ii qabo adaan kuu tawaawacaye

Translation

Taleex and Abqow are separated by some distance
Seven days have I travelled from the land of the Tariiqa
The slow gait you see is from the wearying journey
But rest and relaxation would be an outrage against the Faith
The Jihaad will reach Ceelhuur without Delay
The Edifice at Hobyo will burn, as is my Intention
Give me Togayar, My nephew I beseech.
(Togayar, an infertile mare known for her speed)

In the middle of the year The darwiishes attacked the Majeerteen loyal to Cali Yuusuf at Xinduugan. The Majeerteen received warning of the impending Darwiish assault and drove their Camel herds south. When the Darwiish army came, there was no stock to loot and no army to engage. Ismaaciil Mire was disappointed and composed a playful poem about the incident where they ended up with a few fat-rumped sheep to cook for themselves!

Shilinkii Xinduugan haddaan shalay Jihaad geeyey
Shigta weerar guutadu hadday sheed walba u qaadday
Shaaruflaha Majeerteen hadday shidatay reerkiisa
Horweyn lagama soo shubo gunaan shucub u foofayne
Anoo shiiday baan helay wankii shirixa weynaaye
Shiilliinka ii keen Ilaah waw shukriyayaaye
Nin shahiida baa loo ogaa inuu shaf goostaaye
Nimcadaan Shareecada ku helay yaan ka shaabacaye

Ismaaciil Mire had occassion to wage war on another Majeerteen King, this time the Sultanate of Boqor Cismaan that was based in Boosaaso and whose relations with the Daraawiish were always fraught. in late 1915 the Cismaan Maxamuud looted a large and valuable stock from the Daraawiish(Miinanle) which caused consternation in the Darwiish camp. Ismaaciil Mire was put in charge of a Darwiish force tasked with recovering the stock with the proviso that they should set out on foot. The reasoning behind this was that the Majeerteen land was barren and without much natural cover. As a result a mounted force would be very conspicuous. Ismaaciil Mire rejected this rationale and argued that if the Darwiish horses were not away for grazing to Xaysimo the Miinanle stock would not have been lost. He explains the necessity for the speed and mobility provided by ponies. He composed this poem:

Xayow aabbahay baa i baray Xamar aan fuulaaye
Xiis baan ku meel mari jiriyo Xaya darmaaneede
Farduu Xaysimay naga jireen Xula dhaceediiye
Sengeyaasha xoogga leh haddii lagu xambaareeyo
Xadataa ma dhaafteen hashuu xaday Majeerteene
Lugi inay Xadaafiir tahaan soo xaqiiqsadaye
Welina Eebbahay iguma xadin laba xagaafoode

Translation

My father taught me to ride a Bay horse
I rode Xiis and Xaya, the choice of Mounts
The Horses were away, when they took Xula
If these powerful Stallions were nearby
The she-camel stolen by the thieving Majeerteen
Would not have gone very far from us
I know how taxing foot travel can be
But mercifulAllah has never obliged me
Ever to slog on a wearying foot travel

Ismaaciil and his force set out on their horses and were successful in recovering some of the looted stock.

By far one of the greatest successes of the Darwiish Armies was the conquest of the strategic Hiiraan region. In 1912 the Daraawiish received intelligence that the Italians were gradually expanding their presence in southern Somalia with the intent to capture Hiiraan, an area that was hitherto free from colonial influence. Their forward positions were as far afield as Mahaday. This was alarming news to the Daraawiish. Sayid Maxamed dispatched an army of 900 men commanded by Xaaji Maxamuud Macalin "Cagadhiig" towards Doh and Ceelgaab. Their instructions were to link up with the Darwiish forces based there under the command of the Sayid's brother Khaliif Sheekh Cabdille and proceed to Hiiraan with the aim of establishing Darwiish presence in Beledweyne, including the building of forts.

When the force reached Hiiraan they set up a bivouac at Qollad near Beledweyne. They started sending many messages and delegations to the Xawaadle inhabitants of the land urging them to join the holy Darwiish army and take their part in the liberation struggle for Somalia. The Xawaadle sent messages to the Daraawiish that they will not countenance Darwiish presence in Hiiraan. They were implacable in their stance despite many attempts by the Daraawiish to convince them of the danger posed by the Italians and the need for unity in opposing the colonial machinations. At long last, when it became evident that the Xawaadle were in no mood for compromise the Daraawiish decided that an all-out war to subdue the Xawaadle was inevitable. The Xawaadle were in bullish mood and confident that they could defend themselves from the Daraawiish. They had an able leader named Nimcade Dacaar who led a force named Hormadiid. In 1913, Daraawiish attacked the Xawaadle and routed them and captured the entire herds of the Xawaadle and Hiiraan was finally pacified and brought under the Darwiish Banner.

The Daraawiish built a base for themselves in Beledweyne. Immediately work began on a fort to defend the Darwiish realm in Hiiraan, designed and built by a man named Cali Jalax. Darwiish hero Xaaji Maxamuud Macalin "Cagadhiig", of the Cabdi Garaad(Qayaad), Dhulbahante, was named Commander of the Darwiish armies in Hiiraan.

This was a worrying development for the Italians and they reinforced their positions in Mahaday, fearful of a southern advance by the Daraawiish. They also established new positions in Tiyeeglow and Buqcaqable to safeguard their southern dominions. At the same time they held urgent talks with Suldaan Cali Yuusuf of the Majeerteen Mudug kingdom. It was agreed that Hobyo and the Italians should present a united front against the Daraawiish. They also drafted in Boqor Olol Diinle, the hereditary King of the ancient Ajuuraan dynastic lineage. These three powerful forces were yoked together in an unholy struggle against the Holy Daraawiish Warriors who were fighting for the liberation of Somalia.

On March 3, 1915, The triumvirate began their advance on Beledweyne from 6 directions:
1. The Italians advancing from:

a. Buuloburde
b. Buqcaqable
c. Tiyeeglow

2. Suldaan Cali Yuusuf provided 2 armies under the overall command of his legendary General, Godogodo. The armies were to advance from:

a. Mudug
b. Ceelbuur

3. Boqor Olol Diinle leading an Ajuuraan army coming out of Qallaafe.

In a siege that lasted three and a half days amid heavy bombardment, the Darwiish forts did not suffer any major damage and when one of the heavy Italian cannons was knocked out, the attacking forces became demoralized and went into headlong flight.

Ismaaciil Mire was on an inspection and fact-finding mission to Beledweyne and delayed his departure when he received news of the impending battle. He took part in the defence of the forts and immortalized the battle in a Geeraar that he composed for Xaaji Khaliif Cabdille at Qalqallooc Darwiish base, which at the time was under Khaliif's command. It served as a comprehensive report of the battle situation and the identities of the various lineages and nations involved in the encounter:

War ninkii iga dooniyow
Anoo Doollo u jeeda
Deleb heensaha saaroo
Gooruu waagu dillaacay
Daraawiish ballamayna
Adduun saad ka damcaysiyo
Damdambaysi ma yeeshee
Waa dawaara sideede
Durba weerar na taabay
Maajoor doora qudhmuuniyo
Doofaartii Raxanweyniyo
Majeerteen dunjigiis
Daacufleey askareediyo
Ina Diinle dhashiisa
Dulmi noogu heshiiyoo
Duulba maalin na beegay
Beryey Deex Ololaysay
Dundunku u rognaayoo
Candhadii dubayowdoo
Daaqsin ayan u foofinoo
Rasaastii dam lahayd
Dagaal baan kula roorayoo
Baqihii ay dillaameen
Dabkii aanu ka reebnay
Derbibaan ku masaalloo
Daarahaanu rasaynayoo
Daayimow mahadaa bay
Daraawiishi lahaydeeeeey

Translation

Those of you who want news
As I was headed back to Doollo
Having saddled my horse
At the break of the dawn
Conferring with my Daraawiish
But my best laid plans
Upset by life's changing fortunes
We were suddenly attacked
The filthy Italian Major
And the Porcine Raxanweyn
And a kind of Majeerteen
And the weak Askaris
And the followers of Ina Diinle
United in wickedness and treachery
Each attacked us in turn
Many days passed, before
the penned camels grazed
confined by the din of battle
We rushed at them with courage
And they ran in headlong flight
The arms they left behind
Were as high as a wall
We filled our forts with them
O Eternal one, God
It is you we thank
For this great victory

After this historic triumph the Daraawiish expanded in Southern Somalia and Italy was forced to backpedal and abandon its plans to move into the Upper Shabeele Valleys. The Darwiishes consolidated their victory and solidified their hold on Hiiraan by building two new forts, Aammin and Laba Mataanood. They sent powerful raiding armies into Tiyeeglow and Baydhabo against the Italians and their supporters. They also harried the enemy as far south as Aw Dheegle and Ceel Garas. After the Beledweyne debacle the Italians never mounted an offensive against the Daraawiish. Ever afterwards it was the Daraawiish who were on the front foot attacking the Italians or their interests, while the colonials were ever on the defensive.

In our next installment of the history of Mujaahid Ismaaciil Mire, we will recount the destruction of the Camel Corps and the death of Richard Corfield as well as the attack on Berbera.

to be continued...

13 comments:

Anonymous said...

Waryaa Cilmiile,

The blog rocks man. Keep on coming, pal for sure you are poineer!

Someguy

Anonymous said...

Cilmiile,

Sxb, xagaad ka dhacday? ma waxaad ku jirtaa xabsigii mandheera?


Lafo lafo

jamal said...

Salaama calaikum

Qoraalkkaaga wa heer sare

Inkastoo aanan wali kuli wada akhrin oo rajaynayo in aan wada akhriyo, hadana in aan suaashaan kuusii hormariyo ayaan jeclaystay.

Makufakartay in aad ayada oo video ahaan ah o adiga ama qof kale akhrinayo aad meeshaan ama youtube soo galisid.

Waxaan raadinayay dad taariiqda dalkeeni ama dadkeeni sifiican uyaqaan oo aan kagalashaqeeyo sidii aan dad waynaha ugusoo gudbinlahayn ayadoo video ah.

Akhriska, hadii aan helno, waxaan kudaraynaa sawiro taariqdaas dhulkii ama waqtigeedi ama xataa dadkii wakhtigeeda ay ahayd kubuuxino.

Anigu raadin mayo faaido lacag ama amaan toona ee waxaan isleeyahay dhalinyarada wax akhris oo sheekooyin somaliyeed oo saan udheer in ay ka caajisaan oo ay saas kudhaafto ayaan kacabsaday.

Waxaan is'iri si ay uxiisaynayaan haloogu geeyo marka-video.

Magacaaga ama naynaasta aad jeceshahay ayaan video ha "QORAAGA WAA" ....kuqoraynaa insha ALLAH.

Kuwa kale oo dhibaatooyinkii somaliya iyo dhagaaladii kafaaloonayana waan rabay in aan isku dayo in aan suubiyo. Hadii aad xiisaynaysid arimahaas oo kale fadlan dad aan iskala tashano oo aan information saxiix ah iyo faalooyin kaleba wadayeelano ayaan raadinayay.

Anonymous said...

This story however, does not only exonerate but it also demonstrates, like so many other stories, which are without any foundation what so ever, how events are misconstrued or distorted by people who neither witnessed them nor heard them from authentic sources. I sometimes wonder in total amazements how young people write distorted versions of our history in the websites, and I have seen contradictory accounts being portrayed as authentic historical rendering.

I do not blame those people, for the fault lies. Every one knows, those who first and foremost made history them selves and as a result left nothing written memoirs and oral recordings for posterity. I have in mind people like Abdullahi Isse, Mohammed Haji Hussein, Adan Abdulle Osman, Mohammed Ibrahim Egal, Michael Mariano OW-cali Cisman, Abdurazak Haji Hussein, Abdurasheed Ali Sharmarke, Ahmed Haji Du'ale, Jama Abdullahi Ghalib and others who made history. Some of them are still with us in fact and can be and should be persuaded to leave something of a heritage for the country, so people like this kid dont twist history to suit there own point of view and hatred. I remember having a post-prandial conversation with the late Michael Mariano OW-cali Cisman in my home in Addis Ababa some decades ago in the course of which I earnestly asked him to pass on his rich historical experience to the younger generations. I had a similar discussion with Jama Abdullahi Ghalib (first Speaker of our National Assembly) who now lives in Lusaka ( Zambia ). Jama and I became good friends (although we belong to two different generations) when I took up residence in Zambia upon transfer from Addis Ababa in 1998. He has a lot of history to tell. I understand that the late Mr. Egal left behind so many historical documents which are now in the possession of his widow. Someone, perhaps his children, should weave the various parts together and give us a coherent historical record from the perspective of the late Mr. Egal. Luckily we also have living historical repositories in Abdurazak Haji Hussein and Ahmed Haji Du'ale. Both live in the United States and have the facilities to enable them give us their versions of history. But I think it is safe to assume that because of his advanced age former President Adan Abdulle Osman is not in a position to write or even dictate his contribution. Maybe his sons are in a position to write about their father...

Anonymous said...

First of all this is one of the most BIAS ARTICLE ON THE INTERNET TODAY at 2008. Its nothing but a JOKE and all it does is provide false re-marks about somali history and its concepts as a whole to say the least...

IT HAS NO BASIC COMMON SENSE, or BASIC LOGIC OF COMPREHENSION. Its the oppinion of a retard who decided to shape a known history in to his own dreams based on fantasy and jelousy dating back decades ago...THOSE WHO KNOW ABOUT SOMALI PRE-COLONIAL HISTORY WILL KNOW TO LAUGHT AT THIS while scratching there head with sheer disgust and sheer amusement to the point of beyond ridicolous...

ps:- lies dont break bones-neither do they build houses with twisting history and facts in order to lie and make up, as you go along, to the new generation of somali youth in europe and america...you do well to remember that next time and stop the dhulbahante false propaganda, which doesnt serv any particular purpose! your land is under somaliland occupation, yet all you do is write internet articles that has no TRUTH IN IT...

SNM for LIVE...

Anonymous said...

Politically, although the SYL opened branches in the north and the SNL continued to expand its membership, neither party could mobilize grass-roots support. This changed in 1954, when the last British liaison officers withdrew from the Reserved Areas--parts of the Ogaden and the Haud in which the British were given temporary administrative rights, in accordance with a 1942 military convention between Britain and Ethiopian emperor in exile Haile Selassie. This move conformed with Britain's agreement with Ethiopia confirming the latter's title deeds to the Haud under the 1897 treaty that granted Ethiopia full jurisdiction over the region. The British colonial administrators of the area were however, embarrassed by what they saw as Britain's betrayal of the trust put in it by Somali clans who were to be protected against Ethiopian raids.

The Somalis responded with dismay to the ceding of the Haud to Ethiopia. A new party named the National United Front (NUF)were much respected and much needed at the time. Many considered this party to be the answers they so long waited for in decades. Supported by the SNL and the SYL, arose under the leadership of a Somali civil servant, Michael Mariano OW-cali Cisman, a prominent veteran of the SYL's formative years. Remarkably, a HABARJECLO/MUSE ABOKAR-ISAAQ man was selected to lead the nationalist struggle for the return of the Haud were majority of people living there were darood origins. NUF representatives LED BY THE LATE MICHAEL MARIANO OW-CALI CISMAN visited London and the UN seeking to have the Haud issue brought before the world community, in particular the International Court of Justice. This party were well educated, articulate and numerate individuals who had one goal and one aim in mind, to free somali regions no matter what tribe or clan living there. They were men of principles, honour and dignified manner. The plan was very ambitious and was never tried untill THE "NUF" created by MR.Michael Mariano ow-cali Cisman EMERGED AS ONE OF THE MAIN PARTIES DURING THAT TIME, who was in charge of leading united somalia front...

Britain attempted unsuccessfully to purchase the Haud from Ethiopia. Ethiopia responded with a counterprotest laying claim to all Somali territories, including the British and Italian Somalilands, as part of historical Ethiopia--territories, Haile Selassie claimed, seized by the European powers during a period of Ethiopian weakness. The Europeans were reluctant to press new territorial demands on Haile Selassie and did little to help the Somalis recover the Haud...

Anonymous said...

WORD OF WISDOM TO MY BELOVED DHULBAHATE PEOPLE, open your eyes to sense of reality and wake up from the need to lie and make up stories, in order to make up FOR SOME THING YOU CLEARLY LACK...!

walaahi on allahs name,ITS SHAME TO SEE, HOW LOW and pathetic YOU BECAMING...SOON YOU WILL HAVE ALL OF US BELIEVING THAT ENGLAND AND AMERICA WAS FOUNDED BY DHULBAHANTE !!! loooooool

Anonymous said...

I have to say I'm quite impressed with the information so far. I googled Jiidali and got the lot more than I bargained for.

To those less fortunate like the brother who wants to wake the Dhulbante to “reality” at least we (the Dhulbante) have left a mark in history for which we brought suffering to our lands but at least WE TRIED and WE ARE PROUD. By the way it is fully documented by British (your beloved Masters).

Anonymous said...

Al-Salaamu Caleyka
Marka hore AlAA Mahad leh, Mar xigana adaan waxaan ku lee yahay waad ku mahadsan tahay suugaantan iyotaariikhdan aad diyaarisay, waxaan ku bogaadinayaa inaad halkaa kasii wado oo aadan ka caajisin, waxaan isku dayayaa inaan suugaan badan iyo taariikhdeeda kaa caawiyo.
A/Kadir

widhwidh Born said...

Absolutely Fabulaus

Anonymous said...

Nice article, nice job man!
As a direct descendant of one of
the sayid's darwiish head circle,
waxaad aad iyo aad ugu mahadsantahay sidaad ilaahay ha u naxariistee ismaaciil Mire ugu
xustay article kan.

P.S. do you have any info on the
gabay of dharkayn geenyo in written format?

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